This report draws attention to the continuing threats and reprisals faced by victims, their family members, witnesses in their case, their legal representatives and human rights defenders and the accompanying serious inadequacy of protection measures available to victims of torture and related international crimes. It aims to contribute to the efforts of the United Nations to develop common standards and promote best practices that would serve as guidelines to States in protecting witnesses and others concerned with providing cooperation in trials for gross human rights violations and serious violations of international humanitarian law. It also hopes to be helpful to governments contemplating the development of protection systems and civil society groups advocating for such systems to be adopted.