This manual focuses on four case studies in the Middle East and North Africa region – Bahrain, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia – to analyse how torture and ill-treatment can and have been litigated, and how barriers to justice have been dealt with locally and internationally. The manual also draws out some additional relevant practice and jurisprudence relating to other countries in the region. While national systems differ, valuable lessons can be learnt from the experiences of lawyers and practitioners in those countries which may serve as useful guidance for practitioners from other countries in the region.