This submission responds to a call for input from the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture on the challenges preventing effective accountability and justice for victims and survivors of torture, and good practices on the duty to investigate crimes of torture. REDRESS’s submission identifies: Inadequacies in national legal frameworks against torture, including the failure to properly criminalise torture, and procedural barriers to accountability; Obstacles to national investigations and prosecutions of torture, in particular illustrated by the case of Sudan; Specific challenges for the investigation of discriminatory torture, in particular torture against LGBTIQ+ persons and human rights defenders, and opportunities to strengthen mutual legal assistance in the investigation and prosecution of torture as an international crime.