This report aims to provide local, national and international human rights defenders and decision makers with a comprehensive analysis of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, which has been in force in several parts of India for more that 50 years. This report examines the legality of the Act in regard to India’s human rights obligations under the Constitutional mandates of India and international law sources, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, with a view to providing lawmakers with the information needed to consider the future of the Act, including its repeal. It also provides a tool for victims of violations and their lawyers who litigate cases relating to the Act, and to national or international human rights bodies or courts considering its lawfulness.