This report builds on the presentations and discussions held at an expert meeting on the law and practice on torture in Europe organised by REDRESS and the European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) in Berlin on 25-27 November 2011.

The meeting brought together experts from Armenia, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, and United Kingdom and provided an opportunity to exchange information and experiences on litigating torture cases and advocating legal and institutional reforms.

The report provides a review of laws, practices and patterns of torture, examining the availability and effectiveness of safeguards, accountability mechanisms and avenues to obtain reparation for torture in the countries considered. It reflects both systemic challenges and best practices identified by the participants in respect of key areas of concern.