The present report highlights universal jurisdiction cases where judges or prosecutors have initiated investigations into the most serious international crimes in 2021. It also raises the question of how universal jurisdiction can contribute to the fight against impunity for conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence. The report has been researched and written by Valerie Paulet, Legal Consultant at TRIAL International, in collaboration with Civitas Maxima, the Center for Justice and Accountability, the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights, the International Federation for Human Rights, and REDRESS. The publication benefited from the generous support of the Oak Foundation, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, the UKAID from the UK Government and the City of Geneva.